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Research on application technology of concurrent engineering

1. Technical tools in concurrent engineering

in recent years, academia and business circles at home and abroad have been looking for ways to technically solve the problem of concurrent engineering. At present, research is mainly focused on "basic technology" and "enabling tools", the former such as CAX technology, and the latter such as DFX technology and PDM technology

1.1 CAX technology

Computer Aided Engineering (CAX) technology with the development of computer technology, a number of advanced CAX have been formed, such as computer-aided design CAD, analysis CAE, manufacturing cam, process analysis Lapp and their integration technology, which has become a very important tool for the smooth implementation of concurrent engineering. The interaction between CAx in concurrent engineering is dynamic, random and two-way. This integrated interaction is more frequent and complex than the CAX application in secondary one. In addition, in the product design stage, all detailed information has not been obtained. Therefore, CAX system in concurrent engineering has fuzzy and other material logic reasoning functions, and can determine the feasibility of design from incomplete information

1.2 DFX technology

and the design technology towards product life cycle (DFX) is one of the important research contents of design methodology and design support technology. It is an effective method and technology of product development (1) ofo and BASF work together to build a double-layer tire system. DFX is a design methodology, which does not directly produce the design scheme itself, but a design evaluation and analysis method to provide a basis for the design. Its main connotation is to consider the design constraints imposed on the design in the subsequent stages, such as assembly processing, testing and performance, in order to achieve a successful production. DFX method is not only used to improve the product itself, but also to improve the related process of the product. It emphasizes that the product design and process design should be carried out at the same time, rather than the process design when the product design is completed, as in the past

DFX technology can be divided into two categories: one is the design of a certain link in the product life cycle, for example, the design of DFM, DFA, DFI, DFS, etc., which is oriented towards processing, assembly, inspection and service. The other is the design for product performance factors, such as DFQ, DFC, DFT, DFE, DFR, etc. for quality, cost, time, environment and reliability

before applying DFX technology, appropriate DFX tools should be selected according to existing problems and established goals. When several DFX technologies need to be applied to solve problems, the priority of various technologies must be determined

1.3 PDM technology

product data management (PDM) technology is a product data sharing and process management technology, and is the basic platform of concurrent engineering. The purpose of PDM is to carry out unified and standardized management of shared data in concurrent engineering, ensure the consistency of global data, provide a unified database and friendly circles, and enable the multi-function team to work in a unified environment. PDM integrates all the information and processes related to products, and defines, organizes and manages the data related to the whole life cycle from conceptual design, calculation and analysis, detailed design, process flow design, manufacturing, sales, maintenance to product scrap, so that the product data remains consistent, up-to-date, shared and safe throughout the product life cycle. From the perspective of the object of product data management, it is mainly divided into two categories: one is the definition information of products, and the other is the management information related to product structure and development process

at present, the product data exchange standard pdes/step and the use of PDM for product design process management have been accepted by academia and industry, and become the basis for the development of a new generation of enterprise automation. It is very important for enterprises to establish a concurrent engineering environment

in addition to the above key technologies, there are modeling, simulation and system integration and coordination technologies in the implementation process of concurrent engineering. Computer aided simulation and analysis technology includes computer graphics technology, product digital model generation technology, rapid prototyping technology, multimedia technology and other analysis means. For a complex product design system, we should also construct a collaborative work environment, carry out organizational restructuring and process reorganization, so that the system has the coordination function, can track the design process and manage the workflow, and detect and arbitrate the conflicts, so as to ensure the realization of the overall goal of concurrent engineering

2. Product development process based on Concurrent Engineering

difficulties in the implementation of concurrent engineering often affect the full play of its effect. Combined with the design characteristics of mechanical products, this paper focuses on the implementation and application of concurrent engineering

the implementation of concurrent engineering needs to start from adjusting the organizational structure of enterprises and establishing the concurrent design system of products. As an important part of concurrent engineering, product concurrent design determines the success or failure of the implementation of concurrent engineering. Product concurrent design must break the traditional serial design mode and realize the effective integration of designers, design methods, design tools and design information, as well as the high parallelism of design process. The key of integration is that various design information can be effectively exchanged and coordinated between different stages of design. The information here includes not only design drawings and design descriptions, but also design intentions, design principles, evaluation and decision-making ideas, etc. The result of integration should be expressed as the parallel operation of the design process

2.1 product concurrent design system framework

based on the idea of concurrent engineering, the design is based on the whole product life cycle, and the product concurrent design system framework can be established, as shown in Figure 1

Figure 1 framework of product concurrent design system

1) each design activity starts before the completion of the previous link. Although the information obtained at this time is not complete, the latest results of each design work are released in time. The information, transmission and use between each other are dynamic and continuous, and the design is gradually improved in the whole process

2) take the upstream and downstream design requirements as the constraints of this design work, and carry out objective optimization design and corresponding evaluation

3) introduce feedback flow, change the one-way channel in the design into nested cycle, and feed back the design results to the upstream in time for design evaluation and modification, so as to avoid rework due to problems found in the late stage of product development

4) apply process management software to manage the information urgency in the product development process, speed up the flow of information urgency between the design department and other links, improve the quality and efficiency of design, and shorten the product development cycle

2.2 parallel reorganization of design process

1) reorganization of design process

reorganization of product development process by using the principle of concurrent engineering. The design process model for establishing the development process of machine tool products is shown in Figure 2. In this model, the design knowledge base includes machine tool product analysis, process analysis and parallel relationship analysis components between them, which provides support for obtaining product data, evaluating design schemes, and analyzing key characteristics of products. Conceptual design, detailed design and scheme evaluation are all carried out with the support of the design knowledge base of assembly, manufacturing and service, so as to avoid the disadvantage of less consideration of other factors than design in the traditional design of machine tool products

Figure 2 concurrent design process

2) design organization reconstruction

the organizational structure of concurrent design should be project-centered, reduce unnecessary links and redundant personnel, and focus on the design process, establish a design team including users and personnel in relevant professional fields, and realize collaborative design

concurrent engineering can be vertically divided into two organizational levels: the decision-making level, with the enterprise leaders as the core, is responsible for formulating the strategic direction of the enterprise and making decisions on major issues. The management is responsible for the coordination and management of the grass-roots team. Grassroots team - one is responsible for the substantive work of design and operation, directly to the market, users and design projects. Among them, the design organization mountain is composed of several human resources with complementary functions, which are important grass-roots teams. Each party is subject to the common objectives, performance requirements and general rules, and is jointly responsible for the whole design process

the organization model constructed in this way has the following characteristics:

(1) rapid response. For different design projects, quickly set up a new grass-roots team, generate the corresponding design process, quickly integrate, and quickly respond to the complex and volatile market

(2) parallel collaborative work to realize resource optimization. At each design stage, arrange and call professional and skill complementary human resources to work together at any time, make the best use of resources, and give full play to the professional expertise of talents

(3) global optimization. The whole design process is under the overall management, the division of labor and progress are clarified, the requirements of quality, cost, time, environment and reliability are guaranteed, and the overall optimization of the project is realized

3) design resource reorganization

in order to implement concurrent engineering and achieve the purpose of rapid design, we must realize the sharing of professional domain knowledge resources, human resources, software, hardware equipment and other design resources through the optimization and reorganization of design resources

(1) through the establishment of computer network system and CAD integration system, construct the integration system, integrate the previous independent equipment and application software, and provide support technology and environment for resource sharing

(2) establish a database that accumulates a large amount of professional domain knowledge, such as successful design examples, standard libraries, example atlas, electrification manual, etc., and realize the sharing of professional domain knowledge resources by integrating knowledge information and software

(3) implement rational allocation and dynamic reorganization of resources. Basic resources are shared globally and professional resources are shared locally. Avoid the waste of design resources caused by a department or a person alone

2.3 management of concurrent design process

the purpose of concurrent design process management is to schedule and monitor the design process. Taking the design process as the core, through system integration, process reorganization, information and processing technology, it can realize the maximum possible parallel operation, make the design process coordinated and orderly, and meet the requirements of parallel execution of design process, parallel coordination of design activities, design information and sharing

the design process involves design activities, designers and design information. Design activities reflect the process and dynamics of design and run through all stages of the design process, such as scheme design, technical design and process design. Designers are organizations that undertake design tasks, such as dynamic project teams and static personal roles. Design urgency is the result expression of design activities, such as relevant data of product design. Therefore, the content of concurrent design process management is as follows

1) design project, plan, schedule, cost and quality control

2) dynamic allocation and coordination management of designers, organizations and resources

3) design urgency and workflow management

① management of heterogeneous data generated by designers of various disciplines with the help of different design software

② organization and management of distributed data generated by distributed design in different departments and regions

③ conflict resolution in collaborative design process. There are multiple functional groups in a design project, whose professional fields, design objectives and evaluation standards are different, so there are a large number of mutually restrictive factors among them, and contradictions and conflicts that need to be resolved will inevitably occur in the design process

④ maintain the consistency, integrity and safety of design information,

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